Floods

A flood is the submerging with water of a normally dry area.

Types of flooding include:

Riverine flooding: This usually occurs when a river overflows its banks. It is usually due to the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, exceeding its capacity and overflowing its banks. It can also occur when the velocity of the river is so high that it flows right out of the river channel, usually at bends.

Coastal flooding: The sea can overflow or overtop flood defenses such as sea walls, perhaps due to a heavy storm (storm surge), a high tide, a tsunami or a combination thereof.

Flash flooding: This is a flood that rises and falls rapidly with little or no advance warning. Flash floods usually result from intense rainfall over a relatively small area.

Urban flooding: This occurs as a result of land development. Permeable soil layers are being replaced by impermeable paved surfaces, through which water cannot infiltrate. This leads to greater runoff being generated, which can make rivers out of roadways and ponds out of car parks.